Selasa, 23 April 2019

Mengenal 16 Tenses dalam Bahasa Inggris


Pengertian Tenses (Present Tense, Past Tense, dan Future Tense)


1. PRESENT TENSE

  • ·         Simple present tense Simple present tense adalah bentuk tense yang paling umum digunakan. Bentuk ini biasanya digunakan untuk fakta, kebiasaan, dan kejadian yang terjadi pada saat ini.

Rumus
Subject + Verb 1 (present form)
Kata Sinyal
always, every, never, normally, often, sometimes, usually, seldom
Kalimat Positif
He always works very hard in the company
Kalimat Negatif
He does not work very hard in the company.
Kalimat Tanya
Does he work very hard in the company?
Yes, he does. / No, he does not.

  • Present continuous menyatakan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung atau bisa juga digunakan untuk rencana di masa depan.
Rumus
Subject + am/is/are + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
at the moment, just now, now, right now, Listen!, Look!
Kalimat Positif
Look! He is talking with his classmates.
Kalimat Negatif
He is not playing computer games now.
Kalimat Tanya
Is he playing computer games at the moment?
Yes, he is. / No, he is not.


  • ·         Present perfect menyatakan kejadian yang sudah terjadi

Rumus
Subject + has/have+ Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal
already, ever, just, never, not yet, so far, till now, up to now
Kalimat Positif
He has already finished his homework.
Kalimat Negatif
He has not been to Australia so far.
Kalimat Tanya
Has he completed the arrangement for the coming event up to now?
Yes, he has. / No, he has not.

Present perfect continuous menyatakan kejadian yang sudah selesai dan masih terus berlanjut
Rumus
Subject + HAS/HAVE + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
for the past 5 years, how long …?, the whole week, since xxxx
Kalimat Positif
He has been working here since 1996.
Kalimat Negatif
He has not been speaking for the last 3 hours.
Kalimat Tanya
Has he been playing the computer game all day?
Yes, he has. / No, he has not.







2. PAST TENSE
  • Simple past menyatakan kejadian di masa lampau
Rumus
Subject + Verb II (past form)
Kata Sinyal
yesterday, 2 minutes ago, in 1996, last Thursday, this morning
Kalimat Positif
Last year, he always worked until night.
Kalimat Negatif
He did not go to school this morning.
Kalimat Tanya
Did he pay the bill yesterday? Yes, he did. / No, he did not.


  • ·         Past continuous menyatakan kejadian yang sedang berlangsung di masa lampau Biasanya ada dua kejadian di masa lampau dan satu kejadian menginterupsi kejadian yang lain.Kejadian yang sedang diinterupsi tersebut yang menggunakan past continuous tense.

Rumus
Subject + WAS/WERE + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
when, while, as long as, at this time yesterday
Kalimat Positif
He was speaking when I entered in room.
Kalimat Negatif
He was not doing his homework at this time yesterday.
Kalimat Tanya
Was he writing the letter to his parents when I was out last Tuesday?
Yes, he was. / No, he was not.


  • ·         Past perfect menyatakan kejadian yang sudah terjadi di masa lampau lebih menekankan pada fakta daripada durasi.

Rumus
Subject + HAD + Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal
before yesterday, till three days ago, already, until that day
Kalimat Positif
He had finished his designs before he went to work yesterday.
Kalimat Negatif
He had not been a high school student until last year.
Kalimat Tanya
Had he entered the company before he achieved his master degree in 1990?
Yes, he had. / No, he had not.

  • Past perfect continuous menyatakan kejadian yang sudah selesai dan masih terus berlanjut di masa lampau
Rumus
Subject + HAD + BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
for, since, the whole day, all day
Kalimat Positif
He said that he had been working here for ten years.
Kalimat Negatif
He was told that his teacher had been waiting for him since 2 p.m yesterday.
Kalimat Tanya
Had he been speaking for the whole class before I entered?
Yes, he had. / No, he had not.
.

  • Simple future menyatakan suatu aksi di masa yang akan datang dan tidak dapat dipengaruhi. Dapat juga digunakan untuk pembuatan keputusan di masa depan yang spontan atau asumsi yang berhubungan dengan masa yang akan datang. “Will” dan “be going to” merupakan 2 indikator umum pada tenses ini.
Rumus
Subject + “WILL/ BE GOING TO” + Verb (present form)
Kata Sinyal
in a year, next …, tomorrow, next week, five days later
Kalimat Positif
He is going to be journalist after he graduate next year.
Kalimat Negatif
He will not play computer games anymore because he understand how harmful they are.
Kalimat Tanya
Will he go to the cinema tomorrow with us?
Yes, he will. / No, he will not.


  • Past future continuous menyatakan kegiatan yang akan sedang berlangsung di masa lampau, menekankan pada serangkaian atau durasi sebuah aksi terjadi.   Sebagai tambahan, ini juga biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.
Rumus
Subject + “SHOULD/WOULD BE” + Verb-ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif
I made a promise that I would be doing my homework all day long tomorrow.
Kalimat Negatif
I did not tell anyone that I would be giving a speech to undergraduates for the next whole morning.
Kalimat Tanya
Did you say that you would be working hard in the next week? Yes, I did / No, I did not.




  •  Past Future Tense pada dasarnya digunakan dalam kalimat yang tidak langsung, dimana terdapat perubahan bentuk untuk menyesuaikan dengan rangkaian peristiwa yang ada.

Rumus
Subject + WOULD + Verb (present form)
Subject + WAS/WERE + GOING TO + Verb (Present Form)
Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif
He said that he would leave in three days.
Kalimat Negatif
He did not promise that he would buy you a new computer.
Kalimat Tanya
Did you tell him when I would arrive? Yes, I did. /    No, I did not.

  • ·       Past future perfect menyatakan kegiatan yang akan sudah kita lakukan sesudahnya pada masa lampau, Terdapat 3 waktu dalam past future perfect yang terjadi di masa lalu. Menunjuk pada waktu yang akan datang, waktu tertentu di masa lalu, tetapi aksi yang terjadi harus sudah selesai sebelum waktu yang akan datang. Dan biasanya digunakan pada kalimat tidak langsung.

Rumus
Subject + SHOULD/WOULD HAVE  + Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif
He told the students that they should have finished the homework this morning.
Kalimat Negatif
He said that he would not have made such a mistake if he had taken my advice.
Kalimat Tanya
Did you say that you would have been a doctor in three years?
Yes, I did / No, I did not.


·         





  •      Past future perfect continuous menyatakan kegiatan yang akan sedang kita lakukan di masa lampau,  Past future perfect continuous tense merupakan bentuk tense yang cukup sulit. Namun, kamu dapat mempelajarinya dari past future perfect tense. Bedanya, past future perfect tense menekankan pada durasi waktu yang sudah berlalu dan hasil.

Rumus
Subject + WOULD HAVE BEEN + Verb -ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
Kalimat Positif
I heard that you should have been teaching here for ten years by this July.
Kalimat Negatif
I did not know that he would have been working for the past three hours by that time.
Kalimat Tanya
Would he have been explaining to the workers if he had made the information clear?
Yes, he would / No, he would not.




3. FUTURE TENSE

  • Simple future menyatakan kegiatan yang akan dilakukan di waktu mendatang. Dapat juga digunakan untuk pembuatan keputusan di masa depan yang spontan atau asumsi yang berhubungan dengan masa yang akan datang. “Will” dan “be going to” merupakan 2 indikator umum pada tenses ini.
Rumus
Subject + “WILL/ BE GOING TO” + Verb (present form)
Kata Sinyal
in a year, next …, tomorrow, next week, five days later
Kalimat Positif
He is going to be journalist after he graduate next year.
Kalimat Negatif
He will not play computer games anymore because he understand how harmful they are.
Kalimat Tanya
Will he go to the cinema tomorrow with us?
Yes, he will. / No, he will not.

  • Future continuous menyatakan kegiatan yang sedang berlangsung di waktu mendatang, yang pasti akan terjadi dalam waktu dekat.
Rumus
Subject + “WILL/BE GOING TO” + “BE” + Verb (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
tomorrow morning, in one year
Kalimat Positif
He will be delivering the speech to undergraduates at 3 p.m tomorrow afternoon.
Kalimat Negatif
He will not be doing the task in the office this afternoon because he is sick.
Kalimat Tanya
Will he be playing football next morning in the playground?
Yes, he will./     No, he will not.


  • Future perfect menyatakan kegiatan yang sudah selesai di waktu mendatang
Rumus
Subject + “WILL HAVE” + Verb III (past participle form)
Kata Sinyal
by next Monday, in a week
Kalimat Positif
He will have finished the task by next Monday.
Kalimat Negatif
He will not have finished the given task by tomorrow evening.
Kalimat Tanya
Will he have finished the task in a week?
Yes, he will./    No, he will not.

  • Future perfect continuous menyatakan kegiatan yang sudah selesai di masa mendatang dan masih akan berlanjut.Hampir sama dengan semua jenis perfect continuous tense, future perfect continuous tense  merupakan serangkaian aksi yang terjadi  sebelum waktu tertentu di masa yang akan datang.
Rumus
Subject + “WILL HAVE BEEN” + Verb-ing (continuous form)
Kata Sinyal
for the last couple of hours, all day long
Kalimat Positif
He will have been taking charge of the team for the next hour.
Kalimat Negatif
He will not have been doing the task for the last couple of hours.
Kalimat Tanya
Will he have been doing the research all day long? Yes, he will./    No, he will not.


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